A static electrical machine also known as the transformer, transfer AC electrical power from one circuit to another circuit at a constant frequency level while altering the voltage, which means aiding the machine in increasing or decreasing of the voltage based on the requirement. The transformer works on the principles of Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction, according to which ‘the magnitude of voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux’.
Transformers are electrical devices that are composed of an iron core ring wrapped in two or more coils of wire, one coil is connected to an AC input voltage and is referred to as the Primary Coil, the other coil is connected to an output circuit with a low resistance and is referred to as the Secondary Coil. The two coils are very well insulated from each other which help them to not form a physical electrical connection. This feature gives the transformer its unique electrical properties of this device, making it functional for transferring electrical energy by means of a changing magnetic field.
A major reason that alternating AC voltages and currents ore being used in our homes and workplaces is because AC supplies are easy to generate at a convenient voltage, then transformed (therefore the name transformer) into very high voltages and then is distributed around the industry or the country using a national grid of pylons and cables through extremely long distances.
The real reason behind the transforming the voltage into a much higher level is that the higher distribution voltages leads to lower currents for the same power and thus lower I2*R losses along the networked grid of different cables. The higher the AC transmission voltage and currents the much lower than can be which makes them safer and a usable form of voltage level; which can be used for supplying voltage to the electrical equipments in our homes, workplaces, industries or any other possible place because of the basic Voltage Transformer.
For economical reasons the power grid transmits electric power at a higher voltage while it needs to be used at a lower voltage for the safety of the users. For example, the voltage supplied in India is 220 volts, alternating at 50 cycles (Hertz) per second. This is similar to the voltage supplied in many countries like Australia, United Kingdom and Europe. Although it is different to the 110- 120 volts electricity with 60 cycles per second used in United States for small appliances. To use such appliances that are of different voltages one needs a voltage converter- A Transformer!
This need of increased voltage transmission and decreased voltage for utilization can be achieved only by using the two forms in which the transformers are manufactured by Servo Transformer Manufacturer in Delhi – the step up and step down transformer.
Step- Up Transformer
A Step up Transformer is designed in a manner that it has more number of turns or coils on the Secondary winding or the Secondary Coils than in the Primary winding or the Primary Coils. Therefore, as a result the voltage supplied in the secondary coil in step up transformer is greater than the voltage supplied through the primary coil. So, because of the principle of conversion of energy, the step up transformer converts low voltage with high current into high voltage with low current. Thus, we can consider the voltage has been stepped up; this is where it gets its name, step up transformer from.
The use of step up transformers is not limited; you can find these transformers located near various industrial sites like power plants which are designed to function with megawatts of power. This transformer is not only used for power plants, one can find the step up transformers being used for local and smaller applications, for example, for x- ray machines that require approximately 50, 000 volts for functioning properly or even a micro- wave oven requires a smaller version of step up transformer to operate smoothly.
Note: The type of metal winding that is used; is one of the important considerations that are used to determine the efficiency of the step up transformers. A trusted metal choice used by many genuine Servo Transformer Manufacturer in India is copper coils that are considered to be more efficient in comparison to other coil metal choices like aluminium. Although, copper windings or coils are found to be costlier, but the initial manufacturing cost can be recovered over time, with the efficiency of the material helping you to save on your electrical cost in the future.
Step- Down Transformer
A step down transformer is meant to reduce the output voltage, which means it functions to convert high voltage with low current power into a low voltage with high current power. Let us consider an example, our power circuits carry a voltage between 230- 110 v, but electrical equipments like the bell require only 16 v. Therefore, the step down transformer acts upon the current to reduce the voltage from 230- 110 v to 16v. For supplying in different areas, voltages are stepped down to 440v or 230v for reasons of safety. To make this reduction in voltages successful, the number of turns on secondary winding or coils is less than the primary winding resulting in less voltage being induced at the secondary output (at the end) of the transformer.
Application of Step Down Transformer
The voltage is around 20kV from the Power Plant or Power Generation Station. For being able to transfer this voltage over to long distances, it is stepped up to 440kV with the use of Step up Transformer supplied by Servo Transformer Supplier in India. This voltage is then transmitted to a distribution station. At the distribution station, the 440 kV is then reduced to 11kV with the help of a Step Down Transformer making the voltage ready for customer use.
The Power in a Step Down Transformer
The power in a transformer is measured by using the product of the voltage and the current. The power in a transformer is rated in Volt – Amps VA (or in kilo Volt – Amps kVA for larger transformer sets).
The power according to the design of the transformer is almost always constant which means the power available at the secondary end of the transformer is same as the power as the power at the primary end of the transformer.
This theory is even applicable in a step down transformer. But, in this case the voltage is at the secondary coil of the step down transformer is lesser than that at the primary coil, the current at the secondary coil increases to balance the total power of the transformer.
Uses of Step Down Transformers
The street transformers that we see near our homes are all step down transformers. Before installing the switching power supplies all low voltage wall adapters use step down transformers.
A premier Servo Transformer Supplier in Delhi- Servo Star offers a wide range of quality stabilizers and transformers that suit different types of domestic and industrial applications like for metal processing equipment, elevators, production lines, medical equipment, construction devices, air conditioners and many more.